Lau, W.-Y., Chan, C.K.-Y., Li, J.C.-H., Au, T.K.-F., Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment for childhood anxiety in community clinics, Behaviour Research and Therapy , 48, 11 (2010): 1067-1077.
W.Y. Lau, Child Assessment Service, Department of Health, 2/F, 147L Argyle Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong
This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for childhood anxiety in a community clinic setting in Hong Kong, China. Forty-five clinically-referred children (age 6-11 years) were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-behavioral treatment program or a waitlist-control condition. Children in the treatment condition showed significant reduction in anxiety symptoms-both statistically and clinically-whereas children in the waitlist condition did not. After the waitlist period was over, the control group also received the treatment program and showed a similar reduction in symptoms. For the full sample of 45 children, the effectiveness of the intervention was significant immediately after treatment and in 3- and 6-month follow-ups. In addition, children's anxiety cognition and their ability to cope with anxiety-provoking situations fully mediated the treatment gains. These results offer empirical support for cognitive-behavioral treatment programs in a non-Western cultural context and plausible mediators for how cognitive-behavioral therapy works. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Paine S, Gradisar M. (2011). A randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy for behavioural insomnia of childhood in school-aged children. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,49: 378-388.
Chronic sleep problems can lead to the development of Behavioural Insomnia of Childhood - a sleep disorder involving problematic sleep-onset associations (i.e., parental presence), and resulting in impairments for children and family members. The aim of the present paper was to perform a controlled evaluation of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for Behavioural Insomnia. 42 children (M = 9.3 ± 1.9 yrs, range 7-13 yrs, 18f, 24m) were randomised to CBT (N = 21) or waitlist control (N = 21). CBT consisted of 6 sessions, and combined behavioural sleep medicine techniques (e.g., sleep restriction) with anxiety treatment techniques (e.g., cognitive restructuring). Compared to waitlist controls, children receiving CBT showed significant improvements in sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency (all p ≤ .003), but not total sleep time (p > .05). CBT was also associated with a reduction in problematic sleep associations (p ≤ .001), child-reported total and separation anxiety (both p ≤ .01), with all gains being maintained 6 months post-treatment. This is the first controlled study to demonstrate that multi-component CBT can be effective for the sleep, insomnia, and anxiety symptoms of Behavioural Insomnia of Childhood in school-aged children. Future research is needed to ascertain active treatment components.