Babson, Kimberly A., Matthew T. Feldner, and Christal L. Badour. “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sleep Disorders.” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 33, Issue 3 (September 2010): 629-640.
Department of Psychology, University of Arkansas, 216 Memorial Hall, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
“More than 70 million people in the United States experience primary insomnia (PI) at some point in their life, resulting in an estimated $65 billion in health care costs and lost productivity. PI is therefore one of the most common health care problems in the United States. To mollify the negative effects of PI, scholars have sought to evaluate and improve treatments of this costly health care problem. A breadth of research has demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for PI. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of CBT for PI, including evidence regarding treatment efficacy, effectiveness, and practitioner considerations.”
Harvey, A. G., Sharpley, A. L., Ree, M. J., Stinson, K., & Clark, D. M. (2007). An open trial of cognitive therapy for chronic insomnia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2491-2501.
Allison G. Harvey, Department of Psychology, Sleep and Psychological Disorders Lab, University of California, 3210 Tolman Hall #1650, Berkeley, CA, US, 94720-1650, email@example.com.
We describe the development of a cognitive therapy intervention for chronic insomnia. The therapy is based on a cognitive model which suggests that the processes that maintain insomnia include: (1) worry and rumination, (2) attentional bias and monitoring for sleep-related threat, (3) unhelpful beliefs about sleep, (4) misperception of sleep and daytime deficits and (5) the use of safety behaviors that maintain unhelpful beliefs. The aim of cognitive therapy for insomnia is to reverse all five maintaining processes during both the night and the day. In an open trial 19 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for primary insomnia were treated with cognitive therapy for insomnia. Assessments were completed pretreatment, posttreatment and at 3-, 6- and 12-month followup. The significant improvement in both nighttime and daytime impairment evident at the posttreatment assessment was retained up to the 12 month follow up. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)
Paine S, Gradisar M. (2011). A randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy for behavioural insomnia of childhood in school-aged children. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,49: 378-388.
Chronic sleep problems can lead to the development of Behavioural Insomnia of Childhood - a sleep disorder involving problematic sleep-onset associations (i.e., parental presence), and resulting in impairments for children and family members. The aim of the present paper was to perform a controlled evaluation of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for Behavioural Insomnia. 42 children (M = 9.3 ± 1.9 yrs, range 7-13 yrs, 18f, 24m) were randomised to CBT (N = 21) or waitlist control (N = 21). CBT consisted of 6 sessions, and combined behavioural sleep medicine techniques (e.g., sleep restriction) with anxiety treatment techniques (e.g., cognitive restructuring). Compared to waitlist controls, children receiving CBT showed significant improvements in sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency (all p ≤ .003), but not total sleep time (p > .05). CBT was also associated with a reduction in problematic sleep associations (p ≤ .001), child-reported total and separation anxiety (both p ≤ .01), with all gains being maintained 6 months post-treatment. This is the first controlled study to demonstrate that multi-component CBT can be effective for the sleep, insomnia, and anxiety symptoms of Behavioural Insomnia of Childhood in school-aged children. Future research is needed to ascertain active treatment components.